Mastering USB Technology: An In-Depth Guide to Ports and Protocols


Welcome to the essential guide on USB interfaces. As the cornerstone of modern connectivity, understanding the intricacies of USB technology is crucial. This guide offers a comprehensive look at the standards that have shaped data transfer and device charging over the years. From the original USB 1.0 to the latest USB4, we'll navigate the evolution, uses, and nuances of USB interfaces to give you a clearer picture of their impact on your daily tech interactions.

USB Interface Guide:

A hub serves as the central point of connection for various input and output interfaces, streamlining your connectivity needs. Let's dive into the diverse interfaces that a hub can accommodate:

USB Interface - MOKIN


USB Interface Guide Icon

1.1 Data Transmission Ports:

USB Ports:
Universal Serial Bus ports for standard data transfer.

Memory Card Slots: 
Slots for memory cards like SD (Secure Digital) and TF (TransFlash or microSD), facilitating easy access to storage media.


Type Compatible Cards Bus Interface Bus Speed Spec Version
Default Speed SD, SDHC, SDXC, and SDUC --- 12.5MB/s 1.01
High Speed SD, SDHC, SDXC, and SDUC --- 25MB/s 1.10
UHS-I SDHC, SDXC, and SDUC UHS-I (SDR50, DDR50) / 104MB/s (SDR104) 50MB/s 3.01
UHS-II SDHC, SDXC, and SDUC UHS-II 156MB/s Full Duplex / 312MB/s Half Duplex 156MB/s Full Duplex / 312MB/s Half Duplex 4.00
UHS-III SDHC, SDXC, and SDUC UHS-III 312MB/s Full Duplex / 624MB/s Half Duplex 312MB/s Full Duplex / 624MB/s Half Duplex 6.00
SD Express SDHC, SDXC, and SDUC SD Express / PCIe Gen.3 985MB/s 7.00

Network Ports: 
Ports dedicated to network connections, essential for wired internet access.

1.2 Video Output Interfaces:

VGA (Video Graphics Array):
An analog interface for video signals.
    HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface):
    A widely-used interface for transmitting uncompressed video and audio.
      A digital display interface developed by VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association).
        DVI (Digital Visual Interface):
        Designed for transmitting high-quality video signals.

        1.3 Power Interfaces:


        Power Delivery (PD):
        A specification for handling higher power and allows a range of devices to charge quickly over a USB connection.

        DC (Direct Current):
        A power supply interface for providing continuous electrical power.

        1.4 Thunderbolt: 

        A hardware interface that allows the connection of external peripherals to a computer, known for its high-speed data transfer capabilities.
        One interface can be used for charging, data, and video output. It also supports PCIe peripherals and daisy chaining.

        Common USB-Related Issues and Solutions:

        ⑴ HDMI VS DP


        This table outlines the advantages, limitations, and typical applications of HDMI and DisplayPort (DP) interfaces. HDMI is noted for its large bandwidth, making it ideal for complex audiovisual transmission and widely used in home entertainment. DP is recognized for its ability to support high-resolution and high-refresh-rate displays, making it more suitable for professional image and video processing applications.​

        Type Advantages Limitations Application
        HDMI Supports HDMI's large bandwidth and complex audio and video transmission Distance limitations; signal degradation over long distances without repeaters Suitable for HDMI devices to connect to large screens; widely used in home entertainment systems
        DP Supports high-resolution and high-refresh-rate displays, more suitable for professional image and video processing Long-distance transmission requires additional equipment to ensure signal integrity More used in professional fields, such as graphic design and video editing




        USB Protocol Trends:

        USB Evolution: Tracing the Path from USB 1.0 to USB4

        Discover the evolutionary timeline of USB technology, illustrating the advancements from its inception to the latest innovation:

        USB Evolution: Tracing the Path from USB 1.0 to USB4 -MOKIN

        USB1.0 to USB1.1:

        The initial stages of USB technology, offering basic data transfer capabilities.

        A significant upgrade that brought higher data transfer rates and broader device compatibility.
        USB3.0 to USB3.2:
        Marked a period of rapid advancement, with significant leaps in data transfer speeds and efficiency.
        USB3.1 Gen1 and Gen2:
        Intermediate updates that provided incremental improvements to data transfer rates and power delivery.
        USB3.2 Gen2x1 and Gen2x2: Further enhancements in USB technology, offering increased bandwidth and improved performance.
        The latest standard in USB technology, combining the features of previous versions with improved data transfer rates and compatibility with Thunderbolt technology.


        These diagrams provide a visual guide to understanding the capabilities and compatibility of various USB standards and hub interfaces

         Theoretical maximum speeds of USB generations

        USB Version Theoretical Maximum Speed Speed Rating Maximum Power Output
        USB1.0 1.5Mbps (192KB/s) Low-Speed 5V/500mA
        USB1.1 12Mbps (1.5MB/s) Full-Speed 5V/500mA
        USB2.0 480Mbps (60MB/s) High-Speed 5V/500mA
        USB3.0/USB3.1 Gen1/USB3.2 Gen1 5Gbps (500MB/s) Super-Speed 5V/900mA
        USB3.1 Gen2/USB3.2 Gen2x1 10Gbps (1280MB/s) Super-Speed+ 5V/3A
        USB3.2 Gen2x2 20Gbps SuperSpeed+ USB dual-lane (20 Gbit/s) 5V/3A
        USB4 40Gbps 40 Gbit/s (2-lane) 5V/3A


         USB Interface: USB-A vs USB-B vs USB-C port

        USB interface: USB-A vs USB-B vs USB-C port.

         The USB Interface: Beyond the core USB protocol, the USB Implementers Forum has developed a variety of physical connectors to cater to a wide range of devices. The most common ones include: USB Type-A, USB Type-B, and USB Type-C ports.

        Type C:2.0,3.0,3.1,3.2

        USB4 USB-A:2.0,3.0,3.1


        USB Interface: USB-A vs USB-B vs USB-C port

        Common USB-Related Issues and Solutions:

        ⑴ HDMI VS DP

        Issue 1: Can My Computer Use This Product?

        Before purchasing a USB product, it's important to ensure compatibility with your computer. You can do this by:

        Method 1:

        Computer Identifier Check your computer's model number and search for compatible USB products specifically designed for your model.

        Computer Identifier Check your computer's model number and search for compatible USB products specifically designed for your model.

        Method 2:

        Computer Specification Sheet Review the specification sheet of your computer for the types of USB ports it has (e.g., USB 3.0, USB-C, Thunderbolt) and compare with the requirements of the USB product.
        Official Website and Manuals Visit the official website of your computer’s manufacturer and look for detailed information about the interfaces that your computer supports.

        Additionally, reference the ‘Resolution Guide’ for common troubleshooting steps.

        These platforms are excellent resources to further your understanding and stay updated with the latest advancements in USB technology.


        Issue 2: Why Has My Laptop’s Charging Speed Slowed Down After Using This Product?

        If you notice a decrease in charging speed when using a USB product, consider the following:

        Supply Power and Reserved Power The total available power is the sum of the upstream power supply and any reserved power. This total should not exceed the rated power of the adapter.
        Note on Chargers Compare the performance of the original charger with that of third-party chargers. Third-party chargers may not match the power requirements perfectly, leading to slower charging times. It’s important to use a charger that matches or exceeds the specifications of the original.

          In both cases, using the correct tools and methods to diagnose compatibility and power requirements can prevent or solve these common issues. Ensure that you're using the right product for your computer's specifications and that you understand the power demands when connecting USB devices.

          If you find yourself needing additional information or wish to explore more about USB-related products and issues, we invite you to visit the following resources:

          • For insightful articles, tips, and the latest news on connectivity solutions, check out the Mokin Blog.

          • To connect with other tech enthusiasts and experts, join the Mokin Community. Here, you can participate in discussions, share your experiences, and get answers to your queries.



          In conclusion, USB interfaces have come a long way since their inception, becoming an indispensable part of our technological landscape. With the knowledge gained from this guide, you're now equipped to make informed decisions about USB connectivity solutions that best fit your needs. As technology continues to advance, staying informed is key, and we invite you to keep learning with us at Mokin.